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You have selected free tutorial of the Microsoft Corporation for the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) :
98-365: MTA: Windows Server Administration Fundamentals :
Module 1: Understanding Server Installation :
Understand device drivers
A device driver is simply a software module or application that knows how to perform two functions:
- Communicate with the hardware device
- Communicate with the operating system and applications
A device driver is a software module that talks to the device and the operating system and Device drivers run in the kernel mode of the operating system.
The list of devices that will require device drivers in your Windows servers:
- Video cards
- Audio cards
- Motherboard chipsets
- Network interface cards (NICs)
- Storage controllers, such as SATA and SCSI controllers
- SAN adapters, such as Fibre Channel or iSCSI adapters
- Hardware that attaches through USB ports, such as printers and scanners and the USB ports themselves
The process for installing a driver on Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 for a newly added device through Device Manager is as follows:
Click on the Start menu and then right-click on Computer and select Manage.
Expand the Diagnostics node in the left pane and click on Device Manager.
Find the device in the Other Devices node in the Device Manager pane and then right-click on it and select Install Driver.
Follow the prompts in the Driver Installation Wizard to locate the driver in the extracted folder and perform the installation.
servers use interrupt requests (IRQs) and I/O addresses for the communications inetween cppu and device driver hardware via an I/O address . The CPU requires I/O addresses to get messages to a device.
The IRQ is used to get the attention of the CPU. When a device needs the attention of the CPU, it places voltage on the interrupt wire or connection to the CPU. The interrupt wire connects the CPU to an I/O advanced programmable interrupt controller (IOAPIC), which is the proxy between the add-on devices and the CPU. All devices must have an IRQ associated with them so that the CPU knows which device is seeking attention based on the IRQ. For example, it is not uncommon for a network interface card to work on IRQ 19 and COM port 1 to work on IRQ 4. Table lists common IRQ assignments in desktops and servers.
|A hook into IRQs 8-15 to allow more devices
|LPT 2 or Audio
|Real Time Clock
|Primary Hard Disk Controller
|Secondary Hard Disk Controller
Before you perform the upgrade, you should always check for hardware and software compatibility. After the installation is completed, you should then open the Device Manager and check for missing device drivers, run Windows updates, check for updates for non-Microsoft software, and check the Event Viewer for errors.
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