You have selected free tutorial of the Microsoft Corporation for the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) :
98-365: MTA: Windows Server Administration Fundamentals :
Module 1: Understanding Server Installation :
A service is an application or innate operating-system component that runs on a computer and provides services to the local machine, the networked devices, or both which runs on background or foreftont. Windows servers come with many services built-in and others that can be installed as needed.
Important Windows Services are :-
Application Identity The Application Identity service is required for AppLocker policies to be processed. AppLocker is a new software control solution first made available in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. It can be used to disallow the execution of specified applications through rules configured within Group Policies.
Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) BITS is a service that allows data to be transferred across the network in the background. The data is transferred during idle times so that the transfers do not interfere with user-requested network operations. One of the primary uses of BITS is for Windows updates. The Windows Update process uses BITS for file transfer.
Cryptographic Services The Cryptographic Services service provides for the management of certificates. Certificates are used to provide authentication and encryption in secure systems. The service is used frequently in Windows operating systems because it is needed to validate the digital signatures of signed device drivers and application software.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Client The DHCP Client service is used to acquire an IP configuration from a DHCP server. The client is needed on Windows Server 2003 R2 and earlier servers even if static IP addresses are used because the DHCP Client service is also responsible for registering the server’s hostname with the dynamic DNS servers used by Active Directory Domain Services on these older versions.
Disk Defragmenter The Disk Defragmenter service is new to Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2, and it provides disk defragmentation functions as a scheduled process. When a third-party defragmentation solution is used, this service should be disabled.
DNS Client The DNS Client service is responsible for Domain Name System (DNS) name resolution. It resolves domain names to IP addresses and stores the results in the DNS cache on the local machine. If this service is disabled, DNS name resolution will still occur, but the cache will not be updated. This service does not register the local server’s hostname with a dynamic DNS server on Windows Server 2003 R2 and earlier versions of Windows Server. It does perform the hostname registration task on Windows Server 2008 and later versions.
Encrypting File System (EFS) The EFS service provides the functionality required to implement encryption on the NTFS files system. If the service is not running, users will be unable to access data encrypted with EFS.
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) First added in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, the EAP service provides port-based 802.1X authentication for wired and wireless networks, Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), and Network Access Protection (NAP).
Group Policy Client Group Policy is used to centrally manage computers by applying policies to them that configure or control their capabilities. Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 introduced new Group Policy capabilities called Group Policy Preferences. The newly introduced Group Policy Client service provides support for these enhancements and other new features that are not supported in earlier versions of the Windows client and server operating systems.
IKE and AuthIP IPsec Keying Modules The IKE and AuthIP IPSec Keying Modules (IAIKM) service provides modules for Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and the Authenticated Internet Protocol (AuthIP). The modules are used for key exchange and authentication when the IP Security (IPSec) protocol is used for network communications security. This service is required for proper IPSec operations.
IP Helper The IP Helper service was first introduced in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 and provides tunnel connectivity using IP version 6 (IPv6) transition solutions. These transition solutions include 6-to-4, ISATAP, and Teredo. Tunneling solutions simply allow IPv6 communications to be transmitted across IPv4 networks.
IPSec Policy Agent Windows Server operating systems include a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in called the IP Security Policies snap-in. With this tool, you can create IPSec policies for network-level authentication, data integrity, data source authentication, encryption, and protection from replay attacks. The policies are then processed and enforced by this service.
Link-Layer Topology Discovery Mapper In the Network and Sharing Center, you may view a map of your network. The feature is disabled by default (it is set to Manual, but the service itself is off or disabled) on AD DS member computers, but it may be enabled by the administrator through Group Policies. The Link-Layer Topology Discovery Mapper service is responsible for building this map. It collects PC and device topology (infrastructure devices such as switches and routers) information and descriptive data related to each PC and infrastructure device.
Netlogon The Netlogon service is used to log on to an AD DS domain. Without this service, you cannot join a machine to a domain. Servers installed as part of a workgroup or home network do not require this service.
Print Spooler The Print Spooler service is used to provide local and network printing queue so that a single printer can handle more print jobs than its internal memory would allow. When used on a server to share a printer, the server spools the print job on behalf of the clients. On servers that do not provide printing services and from which you rarely print locally, this service can be safely stopped. You can later start the service, if you need to print, and all installed printers will still be available.
Remote Desktop Services The Remote Desktop Services service must be running to allow a user to control the Windows Server Desktop across the network. Through this service, a user can log on to the Windows Server Desktop using the Remote Desktop Connection client. The user can control the Desktop using her keyboard and mouse as if she is sitting at the server locally.
Remote Registry The Remote Registry service has been available since Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0 were released in the mid-1990s. The service allows remote access to the Windows Registry, which is the central configuration database for the operating system and applications. Using the Registry Editor, you can connect to other remote computers running the Remote Registry service, if you have the appropriate permissions.
Server The Server service allows for sharing of printers, files, and named-pipes across the network. The Server service implements the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol. The Server service is the peer to the Workstation service. Both the Server service and the Workstation servers are typically enabled on all Windows clients and servers.
Task Scheduler The Task Scheduler service monitors for scheduled tasks and executes them at the defined time. Many scheduled tasks are built into the Windows operating system.
Volume Shadow Copy The Volume Shadow Copy service provides the background backup processes used by shadow copies and other backup services. Shadow copies of files allow for recovery of previous file versions. Volume Shadow Copy was first introduced in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.
Windows Event Log The Windows Event Log service is used to log events that are viewed with the Event Viewer application; however, it does much more than this. The Windows Event Log service is also responsible for querying events, subscribing to events on remote machines, archiving event logs based on archive settings, and managing event metadata.
Windows Firewall The Windows Firewall service is a client firewall that runs on Windows servers and client operating systems. The Windows Firewall supports using IPSec rules for security, as well as basic application and protocol filtering. The Windows Firewall functions will not be active if this service is disabled.
Windows Management Instrumentation Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is to Windows operating systems what the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is to networked devices. SNMP allows administrators to monitor settings and states on network devices like switches and routers. WMI allows for the same with Windows operating systems. WMI was first introduced with Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. The WMI service provides access to the management information exposed by the WMI model.
Windows Remote Management One of the most important new features in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 was Windows Remote Management (WinRM). The service that provides WinRM is the Windows Remote Management service. WinRM provides access to remote computers, including the WMI data, and allows for event collection with Event Viewer. The WinRM service may be configured locally or through Group Policies.
Windows Update The Windows Update service uses either the Windows Update or Microsoft Update Internet services to download and install updates on the local system. The service must be running to check for, download, and install updates even if automatic updates are disabled.
Workstation The Workstation service is responsible for network connections to Server Message Block (SMB) servers. Without this service, you cannot connect to shares on other Windows machines.
Additional add-on services from Microsoft include:
- Microsoft Exchange Server for email
- Microsoft SharePoint Server for collaboration and intranet implementation
- Microsoft Threat Management Gateway server for Internet proxy services
- Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager for centralized backups
- Microsoft Dynamics for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) services
Services can be started using the same three methods you learned in the preceding section for stopping them.
To start a service in the Services GUI, use the following procedure:
Click Start and search for Services.msc and press the Enter key.
Select the service you want to start and click the Start button on the toolbar.
Right-click the service and select Start.
Click the Start option on the Action menu, or double-click on the service and click the Start button on the General tab.
To start a service at the CMD Command Prompt, use the following procedure
All Programs Accessories Command Prompt.
Execute the following command: net start spooler.
When the command processing completes, execute the exit command to exit the Command Prompt.
To start a service in the Windows PowerShell command-line interface, use the following procedure:
All Programs Accessories Windows PowerShell Windows PowerShell.
Execute the following command: start-service spooler.
When the command processing completes, execute the exit command to exit the Command Prompt.
Log on to a domain controller as a user who is a member of one of the following groups, forest root domain Domain Admins, Enterprise Admins, or delegated equivalent security group. To create a site, perform the following steps:
- Click Start , and click the Active Directory Sites and Services shortcut. This displays the Active Directory Sites and Services tool.
- Right-click the Sites container found within the Active Directory Sites and Services tool and select New Site… This displays the New Object – Site window.
- Type in the name of the new site.
- Select the corresponding site link object from the list