You have selected free tutorial of the Microsoft Corporation for the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) :
98-369: MTA: Cloud Fundamentals :
Module 1: Understand the Cloud :
Describe the different types of cloud services
Hints: Describe the service/feature improvement process; monitor service health, service maintenance, and future roadmap publishing; identify guarantees, service level agreements (SLA), and capping of liability of the cloud service provider
Recently, cloud computing has drawn a lot of attention from both academia and industry. It has advantages over traditional computing paradigms, such as avoiding capital investments and operational expenses for end-users. The essential characteristics of cloud computing include on-demand self-service, broadband network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service . As computing systems become faster and more capable, it is required to note the features of modern computing in order to relate ourselves to the title of this book on cloud computing, and therefore it becomes essential to know little on various computing:-
- High-Performance Computing In high-performance computing systems, a pool of processors (processor machines or central processing units [CPUs]) connected (networked) with other resources like memory, storage, and input and output devices, and the deployed software is enabled to run in the entire system of connected components. The processor machines can be of homogeneous or heterogeneous type. The legacy meaning of high-performance computing (HPC) is the supercomputers; however, it is not true in present-day computing scenarios. Therefore, HPC can also be attributed to mean the other computing paradigms that are discussed in the forthcoming sections, as it is a common name for all these computing systems. examples of HPC include a small cluster of desktop computers or personal computers (PCs) to the fastest supercomputers. HPC systems are normally found in those applications where it is required to use or solve scientific problems.
- Parallel Computing Parallel computing is also one of the facets of HPC. Here, a set of processors work cooperatively to solve a computational problem. These processor machines or CPUs are mostly of homogeneous type. Therefore, this definition is the same as that of HPC and is broad enough to include supercomputers that have hundreds or thousands of processors interconnected with other resources. One can distinguish between conventional (also known as serial or sequential or Von Neumann) computers and parallel computers in the way the applications are executed. In serial or sequential computers, the following apply:
- It runs on a single computer/processor machine having a single CPU.
- A problem is broken down into a discrete series of instructions.
- Instructions are executed one after another.
- In parallel computing, since there is simultaneous use of multiple processor machines, the following apply:
- It is run using multiple processors (multiple CPUs).
- A problem is broken down into discrete parts that can be solved concurrently.
- Each part is further broken down into a series of instructions.
- Instructions from each part are executed simultaneously on different processors.
- An overall control/coordination mechanism is employed.
- Distributed Computing Distributed computing is also a computing system that consists of multiple computers or processor machines connected through a network, which can be homogeneous or heterogeneous, but run as a single system. The connectivity can be such that the CPUs in a distributed system can be physically close together and connected by a local network, or they can be geographically distant and connected by a wide area network. The heterogeneity in a distributed system supports any number of possible configurations in the processor machines, such as mainframes, PCs, workstations, and minicomputers. The goal of distributed computing is to make such a network work as a single computer. Distributed computing systems are advantageous over centralized systems, because there is a support for the following characteristic features:
- Scalability: It is the ability of the system to be easily expanded by adding more machines as needed, and vice versa, without affecting the existing setup.
- Redundancy or replication: Here, several machines can provide the same services, so that even if one is unavailable (or failed), work does not stop because other similar computing supports will be available.
- Cluster Computing A cluster computing system consists of a set of the same or similar type of processor machines connected using a dedicated network infrastructure. All processor machines share resources such as a common home directory and have a software such as a message passing interface (MPI) implementation installed to allow programs to be run across all nodes simultaneously. This is also a kind of HPC category. The individual computers in a cluster can be referred to as nodes. The reason to realize a cluster as HPC is due to the fact that the individual nodes can work together to solve a problem larger than any computer can easily solve. And, the nodes need to communicate with one another in order to work cooperatively and meaningfully together to solve the problem in hand.
- Grid Computing The computing resources in most of the organizations are underutilized but are necessary for certain operations. The idea of grid computing is to make use of such nonutilized computing power by the needy organizations, and thereby the return on investment (ROI) on computing investments can be increased. Grid computing is more popular due to the following reasons:
- Its ability to make use of unused computing power, and thus, it is a cost-effective solution (reducing investments, only recurring costs)
- As a way to solve problems in line with any HPC-based application
- Enables heterogeneous resources of computers to work cooperatively and collaboratively to solve a scientific problem
- Cloud Computing The computing trend moved toward cloud from the concept of grid computing, particularly when large computing resources are required to solve a single problem, using the ideas of computing power as a utility and other allied concepts. However, the potential difference between grid and cloud is that grid computing supports leveraging several computers in parallel to solve a particular application, while cloud computing supports leveraging multiple resources, including computing resources, to deliver a unified service to the end user. In cloud computing, the IT and business resources, such as servers, storage, network, applications, and processes, can be dynamically provisioned to the user needs and workload. In addition, while a cloud can provision and support a grid, a cloud can also support nongrid environments, such as a three-tier web architecture running on traditional or Web 2.0 applications.
- Biocomputing Biocomputing systems use the concepts of biologically derived or simulated molecules (or models) that perform computational processes in order to solve a problem. The biologically derived models aid in structuring the computer programs that become part of the application.
- Mobile Computing in mobile communication technologies, mobile devices, and mobile applications, more and more end-users access cloud computing systems via mobile devices, such as smartphones. As such, mobile cloud computing is widely considered as a promising computing paradigm with a huge market.
- Quantum Computing Manufacturers of computing systems say that there is a limit for cramming more and more transistors into smaller and smaller spaces of integrated circuits (ICs) and thereby doubling the processing power about every 18 months. This problem will have to be overcome by a new quantum computing–based solution, wherein the dependence is on quantum information, the rules that govern the subatomic world. Quantum computers are millions of times faster than even our most powerful supercomputers today. Since quantum computing works differently on the most fundamental level than the current technology, and although there are working prototypes, these systems have not so far proved to be alternatives to today’s silicon-based machines.
- Optical Computing Optical computing system uses the photons in visible light or infrared beams, rather than electric current, to perform digital computations. An electric current flows at only about 10% of the speed of light. This limits the rate at which data can be exchanged over long distances and is one of the factors that led to the evolution of optical fiber. By applying some of the advantages of visible and/or IR networks at the device and component scale, a computer can be developed that can perform operations 10 or more times faster than a conventional electronic computer.
- Nanocomputing Nanocomputing refers to computing systems that are constructed from nanoscale components. The silicon transistors in traditional computers may be replaced by transistors based on carbon nanotubes.
- Network Computing "Network Computing" represents a way of designing systems to take advantage of the latest technology and maximize its positive impact on business solutions and their ability to serve their customers. Network computing is a way of designing systems to take advantage of the latest technology and maximize its positive impact on business solutions and their ability to serve their customers using a strong underlying network of computing resources. In any network computing solution, the client component of a networked architecture or application will be with the customer or client or end user, and in modern days, they provide an essential set of functionality necessary to support the appropriate client functions at minimum cost and maximum simplicity. Unlike conventional PCs, they do not need to be individually configured and maintained according to their intended use. The other end of the client component in the network architecture will be a typical
server environment to push the services of the application to the client end. a
Deployment models can be defined as the different ways in which the cloud can be deployed. These models are fully user centric, that is, these depend on users’ requirement and convenience. A user selects a model based on his or her requirement and needs. Basically, there are four types of deployment models in the cloud:
Public cloud : According to NIST, the public cloud is the cloud infrastructure that is provisioned for open use by the general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them .
- Private cloud : The private cloud in simple terms is the cloud environment created for a single organization.
- Advantages of private cloud are:-
- The cloud is small in size and is easy to maintain.
- It provides a high level of security and privacy to the user.
- It is controlled by the organization.
- Disadvantages of private cloud are:-
- For the private cloud, budget is a constraint.
- The private clouds have loose SLAs.
- The private cloud platform is not suitable for the following:
- The organizations that have high user base
- The organizations that have financial constraints
- The organizations that do not have prebuilt infrastructure
- The organizations that do not have sufficient manpower to maintain and manage the cloud
- Certain characteristics of the private cloud are as follows:
- Secure: The private cloud is secure. This is because usually the private cloud is deployed and managed by the organization itself, and hence there is least chance of data being leaked out of the cloud. In the case of outsourced cloud, the service provider may view the cloud (though governed by SLAs), but there is no other risk from anybody else as all the users belong to the same organization.
- Central control: The organization mostly has full control over the cloud as usually the private cloud is managed by the organization itself. Thus, when managed by the organization itself, there is no need for the organization to rely on anybody.
- Weak SLAs: Formal SLAs may or may not exist in a private cloud. But if they exist they are weak as it is between the organization and the users of the same organization. Thus, high availability and good service may or may not be available. This depends on the organization that is controlling the cloud.
- According to NIST , the private cloud can be classified into several types based on their location and management:
- On-premise private cloud : On-premise private cloud is a typical private cloud that is managed by a single organization. Here, the cloud is deployed in organizational premises and is connected to the organizational network. There are several issues associated with private clouds as discussed in the following:
- SLA: SLA plays a very important role in any cloud service deployment model. For any cloud to operate, there must be certain agreements between the user and the service provider. The service provider will agree upon certain terms and conditions regarding the service delivery. These terms and conditions need to be strictly followed; if not, there will be a penalty on the part of the defaulting party. If the service provider fails to provide services as per the SLA, then he has to pay a penalty to the user; this penalty can be in any form, which is termed according to the SLA. These SLAs have different effects on different cloud delivery models. Here in the private cloud, the SLAs are defined between an organization and its users, that is, mostly employees. Usually, these users have broader access rights than the general public cloud users. Similarly in the service provider’s side, the service providers are able to efficiently provide the service because of the small
user base and mostly efficient network.
- Network: The cloud is totally dependent on the network that is laid out. The network usually consists of a high bandwidth and has a low latency. This is because the connection is only inside the organization. Network management is easier in this case, and resolving a network issue is easier.
- Performance: The performance of a cloud delivery model primarily depends on the network and resources. Since here the networks are managed internally, the performance can be controlled by the network management team, and mostly this would have good performance as the number of resources is low.
- Security and data privacy: Security and data privacy, though a problem with every type of service model, affect the private cloud the least. As the data of the users are solely managed by the company and most of the data would be related to the organization or company, here there is a lesser chance that the data will be leaked to people outside as there are no users outside the organization. Hence, comparatively, the private cloud is more resistant to attacks than any other cloud type purely because of the type of users and local area network. But, security breaches are possible if an internal user misuses the privileges.
- Location: The private cloud does not have any problems related to the location of data being stored. In a private cloud, the data are internal and are usually stored in the same geographical location where the cloud users, that is, organization, are present (on-premise cloud). If a company has several physical locations, then the cloud is distributed over several places. In this case, there is a possibility that cloud resources have to be accessed using the Internet (by establishing a virtual private network [VPN] or without a VPN).
- Cloud management: Cloud management is a broad area where the entire cloud-related tasks are managed in order to provide seamless services to the customers. This involves several tasks such as resource scheduling, resource provisioning, and resource management. The number of users, the network size, and the amount of resources are some of the important parameters that affect the management of the cloud. Here, the network is small, and the numbers of users and the amount of resources are less.
- Multitenancy: The cloud basically has a multitenant architecture. As multitenant architecture supports multiple tenants with the same physical or software resource, there is a chance of unwanted access of data, and it will have less effect in the private cloud as all the issues will be intraorganizational.
- Maintenance: The cloud is maintained by the organization where the cloud is deployed. The defective resources (drives and processors) are replaced with the good resources. The number of resources is less in the private cloud, so maintenance is comparatively easier.
- Outsourced private cloud" The outsourced private cloud has a cloud outsourced to a third party. A third party manages the whole cloud. Everything is same as usual private cloud except that here the cloud is outsourced. There are several advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing the cloud. The issues that are specific to outsourced private cloud are discussed in the following:
- SLA: The SLA is between the third party and the outsourcing organization. Here, the whole cloud is managed by the third party that will be usually not available on premise. The SLAs are usually followed strictly as it is a third-party organization.
- Network: The cloud is fully deployed at the third-party site. The cloud’s internal network is managed by a third party, and the organizations connect to the third party by means of either a dedicated connection or through the Internet. The internal network of the organization is managed by the organization, and it does not come under the purview of the SLA.
- Security and privacy: Security and privacy need to be considered when the cloud is outsourced. Here, the cloud is less secure than the on-site private cloud. The privacy and security of the data mainly depend on the hosting third party as they have the control of the cloud. But, basically the security threat is from the third party and the internal employee.
- Laws and conflicts: If this cloud is deployed outside the country, then the security laws pertaining to that will apply upon the data and the data are still not fully safe. Usually, private clouds are not deployed outside, but if the off-site location is outside the country’s boundary, then several problems may arise.
- Location: The private cloud is usually located off site here. When there is a change of location, the data need to be transmitted through long distances. In few cases, it might be out of the country, which will lead to certain issues regarding the data and its transfer.
- Performance: The performance of the cloud depends on the third party that is outsourcing the cloud.
- Maintenance: The cloud is maintained by a third-party organization where the cloud is deployed. As mentioned, the defective resources (drives and processors) are replaced with the good resources. Here, again the process is less complex compared to the public cloud. The cost of maintenance is a big issue. If an organization owns a cloud, then the cost related to the cloud needs to be borne by the organization and this is usually high.
Community cloud According to NIST, the community cloud is the cloud infrastructure that is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises
- The Characteristics of public cloud are:
- Highly scalable: The public cloud is highly scalable. The resources in the public cloud are large in number and the service providers make sure that all the requests are granted. Hence, the public cloud is considered to be scalable.
- Affordable: The public cloud is offered to the public on a pay-as-yougo basis; hence, the user has to pay only for what he or she is using (usually on a per-hour basis). And, this does not involve any cost related to the deployment.
- Less secure: The public cloud is less secure out of all the four deployment models. This is because the public cloud is offered by a third party and they have full control over the cloud. Though the SLAs ensure privacy, still there is a high risk of data being leaked.
- Highly available: The public cloud is highly available because anybody from any part of the world can access the public cloud with proper permission, and this is not possible in other models as geographical or other access restrictions might be there.
- Stringent SLAs: SLA is very stringent in the case of the public cloud. As the service provider’s business reputation and customer strength are totally dependent on the cloud services, they follow the SLA strictly and violations are avoided. These SLAs are very competitive.
- Advantages of public cloud are:-
- There is no need of establishing infrastructure for setting up a cloud.
- There is no need for maintaining the cloud.
- They are comparatively less costly than other cloud models.
- Strict SLAs are followed.
- There is no limit for the number of users.
- The public cloud is highly scalable.
- Disadvantages of public cloud are:-
- Security is an issue.
- Privacy and organizational autonomy are not possible.
- . The public cloud can be used whenever the following reason:
- The requirement for resources is large, that is, there is large user base.
- The requirement for resources is varying.
- There is no physical infrastructure available.
- An organization has financial constraints.
- The public cloud is not suitable, where the following reason:
- Security is very important.
- Organization expects autonomy.
- Third-party reliability is not preferred.
- Several issues pertaining to the public cloud are as follows:
- SLA: Unlike the private cloud, here the number of users is more and so are the numbers of service agreements. The service provider is answerable to all the users. The users here are diverse. The SLA will cover all the users from all parts of the world. The service provider has to guarantee all the users a fair share without any priority. Having the same SLA for all users is what is usually expected, but it depends on the service provider to have the same SLA for all the users irrespective of the place they are.
- Network: The network plays a major role in the public cloud. Each and every user getting the services of the cloud gets it through the Internet. The services are accessed through the Internet by all the users, and hence, the service delivery wholly depends on the network. Unlike the private cloud where the organization takes responsibility for the network, here the service provider is not responsible for the network. The service provider is responsible for providing proper service to the customer, and once the services are given from the service provider, it goes on in transit to the user. The user will be charged for even if he or she has problem due to the network. The network usually consists of a high bandwidth and has a low latency. This is because the connection is only inside the organization. Network management is easier in this case.
- Performance: As mentioned, the performance of a cloud delivery model primarily depends on the network and the resources. The service provider has to adequately manage the resources and the network. As the number of users increases, it is a challenging task for the service providers to give good performance.
- Multitenancy: The resources are shared, that is, multiple users share the resources, hence the term multitenant. Due to this property, there is a high risk of data being leaked or a possible unprivileged access.
- Location: The location of the public cloud is an issue. As the public cloud is fragmented and is located in different regions, the access to these clouds involves a lot of data transfers through the Internet. There are several issues related to the location. For example, a user from India might be using the public cloud and he might have to access his personal resources from other countries. This is not good as the data are being stored in some other country.
- Security and data privacy: Security and data privacy are the biggest challenges in the public cloud. As data are stored in different places around the globe, data security is a very big issue. A user storing the data outside his or her country has a risk of the data being viewed by other people as that does not come under the jurisdiction of the user’s country. Though this might not always be true, but it may happen.
- Laws and conflicts: The data are stored in different places of the world in different countries. Hence, data centers are bound to laws of the country in which they are located. This creates many conflicts and problems for the service providers and the users.
- Cloud management: Here, the number of users is more, and so the management is difficult. The jobs here are time critical, and as the number of users increases, it becomes more difficult. Inefficient management of resources will lead to resource shortage, and user service might be affected. It has a direct impact on SLA and may cause SLA violation.
- Maintenance: Maintaining the whole cloud is another task. This involves continuous check of the resources, network, and other such parameters for long-lasting efficient delivery of the service. The resource provider has to continuously change the resource components from time to time. The task of maintenance is very crucial in the public cloud. The good the cloud is maintained, the better is the quality of service. Here, the cloud data center is where the maintenance happens; continuously, the disks are replaced from time to time.
Hybrid cloud The goal behind the Proximity Cloud architecture is to create a distributed hybrid cloud infrastructure, which utilizes data center resources as well as unused compute resources in edge networks in a seamless and secure manner. In the Proximity Cloud model, edge networks are part of the Internet where end users directly connect, such as home/enterprise networks or WiFi hotspots. An edge zone is deﬁned as a collection of one or more dedicated compute nodes in a particular edge network, oﬀered for use/lease by a single owner, referred to as a CNP. All compute nodes in the same edge zone are assumed to be part of the same, potentially NATed, network address space managed by its CNP. According to NIST, the hybrid cloud can be defined as the cloud infrastructure that is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology t.hat
enables data and application portability . The hybrid cloud usually is a combination of both public and private clouds. This is aimed at combining the advantages of private and public clouds
- This cloud is not suitable for organizations that
- Prefer autonomy and control over the cloud
- Does not want to collaborate with other organizations
- This kind of cloud is suitable for organizations that
- Want to establish a private cloud but have financial constraint
- Do not want to complete maintenance responsibility of the cloud
- Want to establish the cloud in order to collaborate with other clouds
- Want to have a collaborative cloud with more security features than the public cloud
- Characteristics of community cloud are:-
- Collaborative and distributive maintenance: The community cloud is wholly collaborative, and usually no single party has full control over the whole cloud (in some cases, it may be controlled by one party). This is usually distributive, and hence, better cooperation gives better results. Even though it may be outsourced, collaboration based on purpose always proves to be beneficial.
- Partially secure: Partially secure refers to the property of the community cloud where few organizations share the cloud, so there is a possibility that the data can be leaked from one organization to another, though it is safe from the outside world.
- Cost effective: The community cloud is cost effective as the whole cloud is being shared by several organizations or a community. Usually, not only cost but every other sharable responsibilities are also shared or divided among the groups.
- There are two types of community cloud deployments:
- On-premise community cloud : On-premise community cloud consists of the cloud deployed within the premises and is maintained by the organizations themselves. The issues related to on-site community cloud are as follows:
- SLA: Here, SLA is a little more stringent than the private cloud but is less stringent than the public cloud. As more than one organization is involved, SLA has to be there to have a fair play among the users of the cloud and among the organizations themselves.
- Network: The private cloud can be there in any location as this cloud is being shared by more than one organization. Here, each organization will have a separate network, and they will connect to the cloud. It is the responsibility of each organization to take care of their own network. The service provider is not responsible for the network issues in the organization. The network is not big and complex as in the public cloud.
- Performance: In this type of deployment, more than one organization coordinate together and provide the cloud service. Thus, it is on the maintenance and management team that the performance depends.
- Multitenancy: There is a moderate risk due to multitenancy. As this cloud is meant for several organizations, the unprivileged access into interorganizational data may lead to several problems.
- Location: The location of the cloud is very important in this case. Usually, the cloud is deployed at any one of the organizations or is maintained off site by any third party. In either case, the organizations have to access the cloud from another location.
- Security and privacy: Security and privacy are issues in the community cloud since several organizations are involved in it. The privacy between the organizations needs to be maintained. As the data are collectively stored, the situation is more like that of a public cloud with less users. The organizations should have complete trust on the service provider, and as all other cloud models, this becomes the bottleneck.
- Laws and conflicts: This applies if organizations are located in different countries. If the organizations are located in the same country, then there is no issue, but if these organizations are located elsewhere, that is, in different countries, then they have to abide by the rules of the country in which the cloud infrastructure is present, thus making the process a bit more complex.
- Cloud management: Cloud management is done by the service provider, here in this case by the organizations collectively. The organizations will have a management team specifically for this cloud and that is responsible for all the cloud management–related operations.
- Cloud maintenance: Cloud maintenance is done by the organizations collectively. The maintenance team collectively maintains all the resources. It is responsible for continuous replacement of resources. In the community cloud, the number of resources is less than the public cloud but usually more than the private cloud.
- Outsourced community cloud In the outsourced community cloud, the cloud is outsourced to a third party. The third party is responsible for maintenance and management of the cloud.
- Advantages of outsource community cloud are:-
- It allows establishing a low-cost private cloud.
- It allows collaborative work on the cloud.
- It allows sharing of responsibilities among the organization.
- It has better security than the public cloud
- Disadvantages of outsource community cloud are:-
- Autonomy of an organization is lost.
- Security features are not as good as the private cloud.
- It is not suitable if there is no collaboration.
- The following are some aspects in the community cloud that changed because of the outsourced nature of the community cloud:
- SLA: The SLA is between the group of organizations and the service provider. The SLA here is stringent as it involves a third party. The SLA here is aimed at a fair share of resources among the organizations. The service provider is not responsible for the technical problems within the organization.
- Network: The issues related to the network are same as the on-site community cloud, but here the service provider is outsourced and hence organizations are responsible for their own network and the service provider is responsible for the cloud network.
- Performance: The performance totally depends on the outsourced service provider. The service provider is responsible for efficient services, except for the network issue in the client side.
- Security and privacy: As discussed earlier, there are security and privacy issues as several organizations are involved in it, but in addition to that, the involvement of a third party as a service provider will create much more issues as the organizations have to completely rely on the third party.
- Laws and conflicts: In addition to the issues related to laws due to organizations’ location, there is a major issue associated with the location of the cloud service provider. If the service provider is outside the country, then there is conflict related to data laws in that country.
- Cloud management and maintenance: Cloud management and maintenance are done by the service provider. The complexity of managing and maintenance increases with the number of organizations in the community. But, this is less complex than the public cloud.
- The community cloud as said is an extension of the private cloud. The issues discussed earlier would be more or less the same as the issues related to the private cloud with a very few differences. The community cloud would prove to be successful if a group of organizations work cooperatively.
- The hybrid cloud environment is suitable for
- Organizations that want the private cloud environment with the scalability of the public cloud
- Organizations that require more security than the public cloud
- The hybrid cloud is not suitable for
- Organizations that consider security as a prime objective
- Organizations that will not be able to handle hybrid cloud management
- Advantages of the hybrid cloud are:-
- It gives the power of both the private and public clouds.
- It is highly scalable.
- It provides better security than the public cloud.
- Disadvantages of the hybrid cloud are:-
- The security features are not as good as the public cloud.
- Managing a hybrid cloud is complex.
- It has stringent SLAs.
- Characteristics of the hybrid cloud are:-
- Scalable: The hybrid cloud is a combination of one or more deployment models. Usually, the private with public cloud gives hybrid cloud. The main reason of having a hybrid cloud is to use the property of a public cloud with a private cloud environment. The public cloud is used whenever needed; hence, as the public cloud is scalable, the hybrid cloud with the help of its public counterpart is also scalable.
- Partially secure: The hybrid cloud usually is a combination of public and private. The private cloud is considered to be secured, but as the hybrid cloud also uses the public cloud, there is high risk of security breach. Thus, it cannot be fully termed as secure but as partially secure.
- Stringent SLAs: As the hybrid cloud involved a public cloud intervention, the SLAs are stringent and might as per the public cloud service provider. But overall, the SLAs are more stringent than the private cloud.
- Complex cloud management: Cloud management is complex and is a difficult task in the hybrid cloud as it involves more than one type of deployment models and also the numbers of users are high.
- The cloud can be analyzed in the following aspects:
- SLA: SLA is one of the important aspects of the hybrid cloud as both private and public are involved. There is a right combination of SLAs between the clouds. The private cloud does not have stringent agreements, whereas the public cloud has certain strict rules to be covered. The SLAs to be covered under each purview are clearly defined, and it wholly depends on the service provider (private cloud) to provide efficient services to the customers.
- Network: The network is usually a private network, and whenever there is a necessity, the public cloud is used through the Internet. Unlike the public cloud, here there is a private network also. Thus, a considerable amount of effort is required to maintain the network. The organization takes the responsibility from the network.
- Performance: The hybrid cloud is a special type of cloud in which the private environment is maintained with access to the public cloud whenever required. Thus, here again a feel of an infinite resource is restored. The cloud provider (private cloud) is responsible for providing the cloud.
- Multitenancy: Multitenancy is an issue in the hybrid cloud as it involves the public cloud in addition to the private cloud. Thus, this property can be misused and the breaches will have adverse affects as some parts of the cloud go public.
- Location: Like a private cloud, the location of these clouds can be on premise or off premise and they can be outsourced. They will have all the issues related to the private cloud; in addition to that, issues related to the public cloud will also come into picture whenever there is intermittent access to the public cloud.
- Security and privacy: Whenever the user is provided services using the public cloud, security and privacy become more stringent. As it is the public cloud, the threat of data being lost is high.
- Laws and conflicts: Several laws of other countries come under the purview as the public cloud is involved, and usually these public clouds are situated outside the country’s boundaries.
- Cloud management: Here, everything is managed by the private cloud service provider.
- Cloud maintenance: Cloud maintenance is of the same complexity as the private cloud; here, only the resources under the purview of the private cloud need to be maintained. It involves a high cost of maintenance.
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